Founded in 1909 by a gift from J. Pierpont Morgan, the Yale Babylonian Collection today comprises over 45,000 items, including cuneiform tablets, cylinder seals, and other artifacts, as well as a complete reference library, seminar room, work space for visiting scholars, casts of major monuments, and conservation facilities. It is the largest collection of material from ancient Mesopotamia in North America, and ranks among the leading collections in the world. Although it is an independent branch of the University, its curators have always been professors in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, and students actively use its resources in their training and doctoral research.

Top row, left to right: Old Assyrian letter (NBC 1907); window in Collection office; Kassite kudurru (NBC 9502). Bottom row, left to right: Old Akkadian delivery of goats (NBC 6861); Babylonian duck weight (YBC 2262); Old Babylonian mask (YBC 2238).